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History of Magnetic Therapy II

The modern term "magnetic therapy" refers to the study from the sensitivity and reaction of living organisms towards the earth's magnetic area and to artificial magnetic fields having similar intensities. The term is fairly recent and has replaced Mesmer's term "animal magnetism."

In 1778, the Dutch physicist Anton Brugmans discovered diamagnetism, a characteristic of those elements (including mercury, silver, and zinc) which are slightly repulsed by magnets. Within the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, French physicist and engineer Charles-Augustin de Coulomb went on to establish the experimental and theoretical basis of magnetism and electrostatics. He was the very first to make quantitative measurements of electric attraction and repulsion and to formulate a law governing these phenomena.

Until the nineteenth century, electricity and magnetism were treated as two different branches of physics even though numerous important connections had been known to exist between them. Within the 19th century there had been much more contributions to the field of magnetism and individuals connection to magnetic therapy. One came from Denmark where in 1820 the Danish physicist Hans Christian 0rsted conducted his well-known experiment demonstrating that a magnetic needle is deviated by an electric present, which suggested that magnetism might be described in terms of currents, even if individuals currents could not be observed by the human eye. This observation became the foundation from the area of electromagnet ism and later of magnetic treatment as we know and refer to these days.

Following 0rsted's discovery of electrical currents in 1820 the gifted French scientist, mathematician, and physicist Andre-Marie Ampere took only several days to formulate the theory of electromagnetism, and a new area was born, though not to be confused with the emergence of the magnetic bracelet. Ampere studied the influence that currents and magnets have on each other and theorized that magnetism is based on the existence of specific currents. He also invented the galvanometer, the very first electrical telegraph system, and the electromagnet. In the same year as 0rsted's breakthrough, French scientist Dominique Francois Arago demonstrated that an iron bar could be magnetized if it was placed inside a solenoid through which an electrical present runs. Until that time, the only permanent magnets were individuals discovered in nature, and Arago's discovery led towards the manufacture of artificial magnets.

The nineteenth century was the golden era of physics. Throughout the whole of Europe there were discoveries that followed 1 another at an amazing pace. The English scientist William Sturgeon built the very first electromagnet in 1825, using a horseshoe-shaped iron bar coated with varnish (which acted as an insulating agent) and wrapped in bare electrical wire. Nevertheless, the resulting electromagnet was not very strong and could lift only several grams.

In 1831, a few years after the breakthrough of electromagnetism, British physicist and chemist Michael Faraday discovered the principle of electromagnetic induction. Electromagnetic induction is the production of electric current inside a circuit by variations within the flux of magnetic induction to which the circuit is subjected; most modern day electric generators and transformers depend on it. Faraday, who carefully recorded his much more than sixteen thousand experiments and research projects, went on to become the father of a number of other new branches within the area of magnetism, including electromagnetism and magnetic force lines. A year after Faraday's breakthrough of electromagnetic induction, American physicist Joseph Henry created exactly the same discovery much more than two thousand kilometres away. Faraday was the first to publish his findings and as a result the discovery was attributed to him, but the unit measuring electrical inductance in the International System of Units, henry or H, was named after Joseph Henry.

German astronomer, mathematician and physicist Friedrich Gauss, who made numerous discoveries in mathematics as well as in astronomy, also chose magnetism as his primary field of interest. In 1839 he formulated the mathematical theory of magnet ism and invented the magnetometer. His name was given to the nicely known magnetic measurement unit gauss.

The Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in known mostly for his contribution to the kinetic dynamics and also the breakthrough of magnetostriction (the phenomenon of substances changing in volume when placed in a magnetic area). However he is much more known for writing the electromagnetic theory of light in 1865, where he devised the general equations from the electromagnetic area. His concept combined electric and magnetic phenomena and his work play the same role in electromagnetism as Newton's principles and the law of universal gravitation do in die area of mechanics.

Other scholars such as the English physicist Oliver Heaviside and Dutch scientists H. A. Lorentz and Heinrich Hertz later clarified Maxwell's theory, which caused the electromagnetism branch of physics to grow considerably. Hertz proved the existence of "Maxwellian waves," now known as short radio-electric waves. The inventor Guglielmo Marconi worked on the practical application of these waves and conducted the very first radio transmission in 1896. Later in 1898 Danish engineer Valdemar Poulsen invented magnetically recorded sound, which many of us could not imagine being without now days in our modern day day life. Many more applications of magnetism soon followed. These days, magnets and also the practical application of magnetism and not only magnetic treatment are present in nearly each and every aspect of our lives, from the magnetic levitation systems used in transportation and also the magnetic resonance devices used in medicine to audio and video systems, personal computers, calculators, and doorbells via to magnetic bracelets.

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